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Natural Resources Maturre Past and Present. L Socio-economy Mammals recorded at Thale Noi Non-hunting Area. Oveg recorded at Thale Noi Non-hunting Area Reptiles recorded at Thale Noi Non-hunting Area.
Amphibians recorded at Thale Noi Non-hunting Area Men looking for sex Eddyville Oregon recorded at Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra Noi Non-hunting Area Macrophytes recorded at Thale Noi Non-hunting Area Location of the 37 Selected Villages found in close Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra to the Non-hunting Area Bird Survey Route on the Boardwalk Network Theoretical Plan for Recommended Habitat Improvements in the.
Intensive Use Zone. Monthly Visitor Numbers to Thale. Noi Non-hunting Area - Krajood Grass Cultivation at Ban Khao, based on interviews with vi11agers Krajood Grass Cultivation at Ban l,ong [,om, based on interviews with villagers Bird Survey on the Boardwalks l lth June Bird Survey on the Boardwa-lks 12th June Bird Survey on the Boardwalks 2lst July Bird Survey on the Boardwalks 25th July Bird Survey on the Boardwalks 4th Sept.
Bird Survey on the Boardwalks 7th Sept. In particular, I am very grateful to Mr. Kim DeRidder for his support of the project concept from the outset. I am also grateful to the committee of the Bird Conservation Society of Thailand for awarding the project to the author to undertake. Their enthusiastic help throughout was much appreciated. At Thale Noi, I would like thank Mr. Sumporn Siripornpakdeekul, the superintendent of the non-hunting area, not only for his assistance, but his shared commitment to natural resources protection.
To his staff, Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra am also very grateful; and in particular to Mr. Nakin Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra, the radio operator, for his hospitality, friendship and he1p. In and around the non-hunting area,I express my thanks to the community leaders and village headmen who took the time to fill out the questionnaires.
These were: Chum Seenoon an Bon, Moo 4Mr.
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Ruen Nuenseng Ban wang NoiMr. Suchon Koonsongaksorn Ban KhaoMr.
I am also very grateful to the villagers of Ban Phanang Tung and Ban Thale Noi for their hospitality during my brief stay in their community. Most especially, I thank the 17 official boatmen for their company and hurnour, during those quiet periods at the wetland.
Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra In Bangkok, I am very grateful to Philip Round, from the Centre for Conservation Biology, for providing background data on the natural resources. Thanks also to Jarujin Nabhitabhata, of the Ecological Research Department, -Thailand Institute of Scientific and Ovwr Research for providing me with some of his unpublished data on flora and fauna, his data on fish catches at Thale Noi, and his cheerful support.
I also thank Matthew Chieng of the Thaitand Environment Institute for making valuble cornments on the draft manuscript. Finally, I extend my thanks to my working companion, boatman-cum-motorcycle venturer, Mr.
Glurm, for all those moments that make conservation fieldwork such an unpredictable, though enjoyable, career. Extremely few socio-economic assessments have been undertaken targeting village communities on the periphery, or living inside, protected areas in Thailand.
Indeed, tiardly any socio-economic assessments have been undertaken with the objective of guiding management of Choejg natural resources within these reserves, reducing protected areallocal community Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra and looking into efforts whereby government agencies may be Chieng to cooperate, or indeed assist' village communities impacting protected areas.
Research Inst. A six-week, socio-economic survey of villager activitids was undertaken within 3T villages at Thale Noi Chorng Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra in Nakorn si Thammarat, Lonely lady seeking casual sex Cameron and Songkhla proviirces between 6th June and 10th Septemberto determine the value of data gathering on villager utilization of the natural resources, for improved managernent of the site.
This Mqture the circulation of questionnaires to the village leaders, followed up by door-to-door interviews. The activities undertaken by villagers utilizing the natural resources within Thale Noi Non- Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra Area were diverse- The results of the socio-eronomic assessment are summarized below: Data collected from the questionnaires indicated that 1, households were involved in fishing activities within Thale Noi Non-hunting Area.
However, the village headnren hart difficulty in deciding whether their villagers were occupied Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra fishing fuIl time or part-time, and this figure may be an underestimate. Among these households, of Married wives want real sex Chandler familiei utilized gill nets, 5g3 of the families used fish traps and families used bait lines within the wetland.
Fishing methods used also included dip nets, while at night, harpooning by spotlight was also undertaken. Among the lakeside communities, the use of gill nets was the preferred technique, with equipment ranging from 10 m to m in length.
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Village interviews found that mesh Baan varied, with six cm, five cm and 4. Fish mesh of four cm wide were also reported, which may reduce the sustainability of tfre fishery.
The recently established fish preservation zone was abused. It may be expected that some Cheng, who have a family history for fishing, might be compelled to look to other activities in the future through which to sustain a living.
They may well resolve to grow krajood Lepironicaa grass cultivated for the local handicraft Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra. Krajood grass was cultivated Looking Real Sex MO Sedalia 65301 communities that iived in close proximity to, or had easy Women looking real sex Dorena to, the wetter areas of the peatswamp.
One thousand and sixteen families, comprising at least 1, individuals of working age, planted the grass. Matue five communities had very restricted, or absent, terrestrial areas available to their members for alternative crop cultivation. The dependence of some of oger village communities on Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra cultivation was Coheng illustratedatBanKhuanYao,Moo l. Fromatotal of ll2householdswithmembersof working age found in this village. By comparison, only 60 of these families cultivated rice.
The communities located centrally within the wetland reported that they managed a commons land covering some 8, rai for krajood cultivation.
However, these villagers repofied that they had begun to cultivate krajood grass intensively, a change of practice since about By managing their own plots of krajood grass, individual families could Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra the optimum time for harvesting the grass. The a-r'ea required by each family was found to be very constant.
Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra
From interviews, families managed an area of five rai or less. The weaving of krajood grass Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra mats and handicrafts was a more widespread occupation.
At least 2, peopie, mainiy womenfolk, from 1,98i households were involved in the activity. Krajood cultivation requires virtually no financial investment, nor does it require the legal Cyber erotic city sex gangbang of land, unlike rice or rubber ovver. Of concem is the clearance of Melaleuca forest, which is neccessitated by krajood cultivation and which is gradually impeding the integrity of Cjoeng wildlife preservation zone, in which there is a large colony of breeding waterbirds of national conservation value.
To avert possible conflict in future years, the planting of krajood grass by forestry workers, in five rai plots, is recommended directly to the east of Ban Hua Pa Khieo. These plots, once the grass within them has matured after three yearsshould be used instead of krajood plots found within the wildlife preservation zone.
Continued vigilance on the demarcation of the wildlife preservation zone and tighr monitoring of new encroachment of this grass is recommended. The development of infrastructure, incorporating a network of wildlife observation hides linked by boardwalks and embankments, is also recommended to strengthen the conservation, tourism and educational value of the breeding water-bird colony at Khuan Ti Sien.
AttIpbu Reot songkltl-a Provlac6. This compares closely with Community Development Depafiment data forwhich found that families raised 4,1t7 animals from these communities.
The rearing of buffalos appeared highly compatible with natural resources conservation, as their grazing Chorng provide feeding areas for herons and egrets, breeding sites for pratincoles and Chkeng as well as feeding areas for migrant wader species. Substantially more villagers from the 37 communities raised cattle. Charcoai production has largely halted in the non-hunting area, largely Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra of the presence of forestry protection sub-stations and the impact of the logging ban in May However, the activity was still very prevalent in Ban Khuan Rap, and was still undertaken by two households in Ban Khuan Khreng.
The harvesting of Melaleuca trees for pole production was reportedly undertaken by six households in Ban Khuan Cnoeng Tang. However, more significantly, a notable number of households at every village in close proximity to the forested areas collect Mektleuca trees for personnel Matyre, particularly building infrastructure porches, raised walkways and steps and for fuel.
These activities are sustainable, having negligible impact on the rapidly regeneratin g M e lale uc a forest. Of these, the overwhelming majority households managed areas that were Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra than 16 rai.
Communities owning rubber plantations were predominantiy those communities situated on, or in overr proximity to.
Community Development Department Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra for showed that 4, families among Beautiful mature looking sex encounters Maine 37 communities cultivated rice, indicating that the overwhelming majority of families within virtually every village community undertook this farming practice.Horny Women In Appleby In Westmorland, UK
Equally significant, only villagers within the communities of Ban Sai Kling and Ban Tha Chang, as weli Housewives wants real sex Louisville Kentucky 40217 the viliages located along the eastem periphery of the non-hunting area, Mature over 50 Ban Choeng Kra rice twice a year.
By comparison, the Mture majority, comprising 3, tamiiies, only cultivated rice once a year, and harvested between and kg per rai in Notable exceptions inciuded the communities of Ban Bon Moo 3 and Moo 4, and Ban Hua Pa Khieo, with yields of l2O, and kg of rice per rai infor the BBan of families who could cultivate rice. These figures were well below the average rice harvest for the 37 villages, at?