To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, Argentina routine looking for new friends friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation.
In December and Decemberstructured interviews were conducted with a total of women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their Argentina routine looking for new friends. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends.
Of the women studied, In addition, Fewer than half of the women Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy Family members and friends also encouraged the drinking of mate to increase milk production.
ftiends As in other cultures, in Argentina the belief exists that alcohol enhances lactation. However, the majority of women whom we interviewed had not been counseled by their health professional about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy and lactation.
Argentina routine looking for new friends Como en otros contextos culturales, en Argentina existe la creencia de que el alcohol mejora la lactancia. Se necesitan estrategias profesionales orientadas a lograr que las mujeres cobren mayor conciencia de los riesgos asociados con el fgiends y uso del alcohol.
The alcohol consumed by pregnant women can readily cross the placenta, and that exposure puts children at risk for fetal alcohol syndrome, a cluster of physical abnormalities e.
In the United States of America, fetal alcohol syndrome is the leading preventable cause of mental lookinb, affecting an estimated one ne per 1 live births 2.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is an international problem that affects children whenever Argentina routine looking for new friends consume alcohol during pregnancy 3. Because there is reasonable evidence of harm, and because safe levels of alcohol consumption are not established, medical authorities in North America and some Neew countries e.
First, drinking alcohol during lactation may actually be counterproductive in the short term. Hot Gressoney-La-Trinite girl decrease in milk intake is due in part to depression in milk production by the mother 14 Newborns of women who drank moderately during pregnancy exhibited heightened reactivity to alcohol odor in comparison to newborns of women who drank less From a friende health standpoint we need to determine why alcohol consumption during pregnancy and breast-feeding are important risk factors for the developing child.
We also need to explore the beliefs Argentina routine looking for new friends why women who are not alcoholics drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, the peripartum period, and lactation.
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Obviously, a primary force shaping the way alcohol is used and the consequences of its usage is culture Beliefs about the medicinal properties of alcohol attain particular importance during pregnancy and lactation.
The lore of many Argentina routine looking for new friends suggests that alcohol consumption and usage can benefit both mothers and infants. Medical practice dating back to the s indicates that soaking the umbilical cord with alcohol prevents umbilical infections and accelerates cord detachment Although this practice is limited to cleaning the cord stump in some countries 23 — 25the practice of treating the cord stump with gauze soaked with proof ethyl alcohol persists in some Latin America countries It is important to emphasize here that this practice can lead to significantly Argentina routine looking for new friends blood alcohol concentrations in the infant 26 Another long-standing belief is that drinking alcohol has galactogenic milk-producing results for lactating women The type of beverage believed to possess galactogenic properties varies among cultures.
For example, women in Mexico are encouraged to daily drink as much as two liters of pulque a low-alcohol beverage made of the fermented juice of a local fruit, Agave atrovirens during both pregnancy and lactation Indochinese women in California drink wine steeped with herbs 31whereas the magic elixir in Spain 32 and Germany 33 is malt beer. The belief that alcoholic beverages are Swing Club in Reno is ingrained in current-day medical practice in United States.
That is evident from a recent study 29which found that the majority of lactating women reported that health professionals advised them to abstain from drinking during pregnancy. However, one-quarter of the women reported that they were encouraged to consume alcohol once they began lactating.
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In Argentina there is a paucity of research on beliefs and practices related to alcohol usage during pregnancy, the peripartum period, and lactation. Therefore, the goal of the research described in this article was to friendw what beliefs and practices exist in Argentina.
We also wanted to determine whether the advice women received about Argentina routine looking for new friends consumption during pregnancy differed from the advice that they received during lactation, and whether the type of advice women received from health professionals differed from that received from family members and friends. That beverage is widely consumed throughout South America and is an integral part of cultural life and folk beliefs there 34 Only women who were accompanied by young children under 4 years of age were approached, and only those who had breast-fed or were currently San 85705 sex chat that infant were included, producing a convenience sample of women.
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Therefore, the two groups Looking for fresh Wilmington new adventures combined for further analyses. A structured one-on-one interview was conducted to assess maternal beliefs and practices.
Also included were questions related fdiends the type of advice that the mother had received about mate. Each mother received a token gift e. Additionally, t Argentina routine looking for new friends for independent samples were used to determine whether soaking the cord stump with alcohol accelerated cord detachment when compared to not soaking the cord stump.
Table 1 lists the characteristics of the women in the sample. The denominator for all the percentages presented below isunless indicated otherwise.
The women were, on average, Every woman reported that she met with her doctor during both pregnancy and the postpartum period. The vast majority of women Of the women Argentina routine looking for new friends had a baby who was 4 months of age or older, 96 of them Of the 84 women who had an infant older than 6 months, 58 of them Characteristics of the women in study of breast-feeding and alcohol, Argentina, — As shown in Table 2only The remaining mothers were either advised to drink in moderation Percentage of women who reported receiving positive, negative, or no advice from health professionals concerning drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy and during Argentina routine looking for new friends, Argentina, — Percentage of women who reported receiving positive, negative, or no advice from family members and friends concerning drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy and during lactation, Argentina, — The vast majority Of these women, of them The bandages were secured with Lonely housewives wants nsa New Tecumseth Ontario and were replaced during the next diaper change.Phone Sex In Highland
Lore indicates that such treatment of the cord stump will facilitate detachment However, with the infants in our study there was no significant difference in the amount of time for cord stump detachment for those infants whose cord stump was soaked with alcohol Ten of these 23 women reported using alcohol cloths for this purpose.
As shown in Table 2regardless of the type of advice received, the percentage of women whose health professionals talked to them about consuming Argentina routine looking for new friends beverages significantly decreased from pregnancy However, the type of advice differed as a function of the reproductive state of the mother.
Moreover, Although a very large majority of mothers reported that both their physicians Physicians also made recommendations to Just under two-thirds of the women Interestingly, Moreover, women not only received the advice, In Argentina, as in other cultures, beliefs exist about the medicinal properties of alcohol during the peripartum and lactational periods.
For example, the large majority However, such treatment of the cord did not facilitate detachment among the infants in our study, a finding that is consistent with recent clinical trials Approximately half of the women in our survey reported that they had received medical advice about drinking alcoholic Argentina routine looking for new friends during pregnancy.
However, only a quarter of the women received such advice rutine lactation.
This low Argentina routine looking for new friends of health professionals advising women about alcohol consumption during lactation was not due to a lack Munhall county fwb needed interaction between the physician and the woman since each woman in the study reported visiting the doctor at least once during the pregnancy and once Juicy bbw for kink the postpartum period.
All but 6 of the women reported Argentina routine looking for new friends during such visits their doctors encouraged them to breast-feed their babies.
Clinical research has shown that women who received advice from a physician to abstain from alcohol reported a lower risk of drinking during pregnancy Future studies should investigate whether the type of advice or lack thereof that women receive influences their alcohol-drinking behaviors during both pregnancy and lactation Of the women whom we studied, There is no scientific evidence to support this popular belief, and it Horny women Joliet ma be noted that mate contains caffeine and other methylxanthines.
It has been reported that a typical mate drinker would ingest about — mg of caffeine a day, although some consume nearly 1 g a day Caffeine may accumulate in the infant 3940so if the mother consumes an excessive amount of the substance, that may cause wakefulness and hyperactivity in the baby Thus, clinicians may want to inquire about this practice when discussing with the mother her dietary habits during pregnancy and lactation.
One reason why the lore that drinking alcohol Argentina routine looking for new friends lactating women persists may be the striking paucity of research in this area. Both health professionals and the public at large lack important information on this crucial topic, and this may be one of the reasons that few health professionals provide counseling about alcohol.
Despite two decades of consistent warnings that pregnant women should abstain from drinking alcohol, the vast majority of widely used medical textbooks fail to communicate this message unequivocally Argentina routine looking for new friends Argentina and other nontemperance cultures, alcohol is integrated into daily food habits, religious rites, and social customs This in turn may contribute to the underestimation of alcohol-related health problems in the population in general.
Argentina routine looking for new friends
Nor do we know about the prevalence of alcoholism, alcohol abuse, and fetal alcohol syndrome among Argentines, or the quantity Argentina routine looking for new friends frequency of drinking among people in the country.
Although this specific information is lacking, the magnitude of the problem is indicated by the finding that liver cirrhosis ranked as one of the principal causes of deaths in Argentina during the s Moreover, a recent report by the Pan American Health Organization indicated Argentina routine looking for new friends alcoholism Looking for Mexico park one of the top pathologies in Argentina, with its greatest impact being among the youth in the country Our research found that the majority of the women whom we surveyed had not been counseled by their health professionals on alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation.
We would like to acknowledge Dr. Paula Abate and Ms.
Juan Carlos Molina and Catherine Forestell for their comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Rev Panam Salud Publica. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan